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The Kingdom of France


Charles X


Following Napoleon's defeat in 1822 France was brought to bare for the crime of Napoleon. Though through the guidance and the protection of France's arch-conservatives such as Talleyrand it would not be punished too severely. Assured that Napoleon Bonaparte was permanently ensconced on a distance island and would not be returning to Europe any time soon, the House of Bourbon was restored with the full confidence of the diplomatic parties lead principally by the English, the Russians, the Austrians, and the restored Prussian monarchy. They would demand of the Bourbons however that they do not let another Napoleon rise again, and restored France to its borders before the Revolution of 1789. Then they levied upon it the debts of the wars since the last restoration, and all of Napoleon's occupations.

The Bourbons returned to a France disintegrated and demoralized from Napoleon's defeat and swift occupation by British forces. Its political institutions were a mess, and many of the old palaces of the Ancien Regime were in ruin. The restored Louis XVIII had much work ahead of him to construct a new government and begin on repaying the debts imposed upon France. Resigning himself to the governing stipulations of the London Congress of 1822 Louis XVIII rapidly assembled a provisional assembly, passed a provisional constitution, and a final constitutional-charter to rule all of France. In it an assembly of peers would be elected on a rotating basis for six years and would serve to draft and propose laws to the king, and approve ministerial appointments. However, the king would sit as the head of state and chief executive of the restored monarchy and had powers over the army and even the ability to veto without restriction the protests of the assembly for his appointment of ministers, in particular his appointments of chief minister. However in trust that their king was noble and just it was passed and made into law and the first government under Talleyrand was assembled and work began.

Louis XVIII's reign was moderate and liberal, compared to his successor to come. He opened the press and let freedom run in ink and was liberal and fair minded to the rights of freedom to assembly. He answered the issues facing France's finances by removing the aristocracy's privileged freedom from taxation, but permitted the continuation of their own social freedoms as nobles and opened legal bodies to determine the restoration of property seized during the revolution and by Napoleon to be returned to their former owners; with an eye to minimizing compensation. He reorganized the army, throwing out the Bonapartist officers and filled the ranks with supporters of the Bourbon thrown. Before his death in June 1825 he replaced Talleyrand with Jean-Baptiste Séraphin, count of Villèle.

Louis XVIII's death was tragic, but not unexpected to the French nation. He had departed with the army to help in restoring the pre-Napoleonic dynasty to Spain but spent much of the campaign sequestered in numerous villas in the Spanish countryside, ailing from complications stemming from his obesity, gout, and all matters of internal and external ailments. Surgeons washed and dressed his body, and he was returned to Paris to be buried at the Basilica Cathedral of San Denis after a brief period of public display.

Louis XVIII's brother, Charles X inherited the throne after him and initially promised to continue the moderate reform policies of his older brother but within the year was showing signs of turning hard to the right of him. Doubling down on campaigning, he followed the invasion of Spain with interference in Algeria, promoting an insult by the Dey of Algeria when Charles refused to repay the kingdom any more for Napoleon's conquest of Egypt. Spurned by the promise to end payments, Hussein Dey expelled the French consulate and Charles X invaded in early 1826 scoring swift victories against Algerian forces.

The war however was not popular in France and especially the opposition press which claimed that the war in Algeria was only a burden to the government coffers and decried the move as illegitimate, that Charles had provoked it. However the king was not swayed, and answered by placing limitations on the press that grew until it became absolute and all but the loyalist press was allowed to publish, though leaflet and pamphlet campaigns began to blanket Paris and continue to this day. Charles used this to exert influence on the Chamber of Deputies and replaced the count of Villèl as prime minister with Jules Auguste Armand Marie, count of Polignac; a fellow ultra ally in government. The two of them conspired to continue the full restoration of the old regime and the eventual doing-away with the Chamber of Deputies and began a restoration of the old rights. Passing laws to make it punishable by death to steal sacramental bread, a total abolition of the right to assembly, and the outlaw of liberal politicians from all government posts. Charles X did away with the court bodies overseeing the restoration of property to the French emigrants that had fled the revolution and simply called that all Frenchmen who had fled the revolution would have their properties fully restored to them; although they would no longer be free from taxation.

His escalation into absolutism was far from without its critics and the whispering circuits of Paris began to churn again with all the old rumors and stories from the pre-revolutionary days about Charles X. That he was an unfaithful husband to his departed wife, that he was infertile and sexually incapable, that he had a love affair with Marie Antoinette; how could one cuckold his own brother? New rumors emerged, that he was a secret Austrian, since he never remarried he was actually homosexual. The whispers and rumors that reached Charles X's ears infuriated him and he ordered the secret police he had organized behind Louis XVIII's back to investigate and punish the traitors in Paris, often ordering them tried on all manners of crimes on top of sedition and illegal press.

The attacks however didn't stop and more and more attacked the king went into solitude and left more and more the affairs of government to Jules Auguste and the ministry. When he often went to the theater he would do so in secret and disguised as someone else in his government. He let his secret police run rampant in Paris, committing their own extended white terror, the second since the restoration of the Bourbons. And among it all, Charles X simply retired, dissatisfied but unwilling to let go.

In the year 1836 he is an old man, reported ill of health and unsound of mind; although rarely is anyone permitted to see him, especially alone. Never is he out in public.
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The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland


William IV


After the abdication of Napoleon in April 1814, British public opinion demanded major gains in the war against the United States. The senior American representative in London, Reuben Beasley, told US Secretary of State James Monroe:

There are so many who delight in War that I have less hope than ever of our being able to make peace. You will perceive by the newspapers that a very great force is to be sent from Bordeaux to the United States, and the order of the day is division of the States and conquest. The more moderate think that when our Seaboard is laid waste and we are made to agree to a line which shall exclude us from the lake; to give up a part of our claim on Louisiana and the privilege of fishing on the banks, etc. peace may be made with us.

Led by General Isaac Brock, the British, along with their Canadian and First Nation allies, hammered the Americans at Queenston Heights and Detroit. Landings in New Orleans, a bombardment of Boston, and General Brocks unerring support of the Shawnee Chief Tecumseh, led to the Americans eventually suing for peace as the Frontier burned. The Iroquois and Huron Confederacies were recognized as British protectorates, and the region known as the Louisiana Territory was turned over to the British.

Protected by her Navy, at least in theory, the British rolled up the territories and colonies of its land bound enemies. The French fleet, a shadow of its former self, was penned into a half dozen harbours and left to rot. On land, however, the British did not fare so well. The French proved, with a few exceptions, to be better led, and friction among the Allies to several reveres, including a brutal defeat at the Battle of Waterloo. The British were forced from mainland Europe and only a few ports remained open to their goods.

To suggest that the British people were badly shaken by the landing of French troops at Dover in 1822 would be to make a massive understatement. What followed was a soul searching that the British had not had to undergo since the Spanish Armada. A special committee was launched by the King to investigate where things had gone so badly wrong and he nominated the Duke of Wellington to lead the review. Wellington had avenged his defeat at Waterloo by soaking British beaches with French blood, but now he was being asked to make sure such an event never occurred again.

First came reforms to the Navy and Army. The practice of buying commissions was scrapped and he adopted the French style of promoting skilled men from the ranks. A proper military college was established in York for the training of officers who could not read or write. The use of the rifle became widespread and the iconic red jacket of the British army began to give way to the dark green and black associated with the rifle regiments. Britain had learned some hard lessons.

The Navy, long Britains favourite son, found its reputation badly tarnished after their failure to prevent the French landing; they had been pissing about in the wrong place when the invasion began. The Captains list, previously based solely on seniority, was abolished and, like the army, new commanders were promoted based on competency and leadership.

With Napoleon gone, and the world more or less at peace, the king began new political reforms. The poor law was updated, child labour restricted, slavery abolished in nearly all of the British Empire, and the British electoral system refashioned by the Reform Act of 1832. His control over the Kingdom of Hannover had long be surrendered as Prussia sought to make its own way.

Now the King lies on his death bed, the Empire is strong, and money flows into British coffers. Whispers of war on the mainland have begun again, the Americas are aflame, and the cavalry of Saint George will ride again.

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The Danubian Principalities in Europe, 1836

Local map of the Principalities. The territory of the Principalities is colored in blush-green - areas with large Romanian-speaking populations are colored in light blue.

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Qajar Persia

The diplomatic flag of Mohammad Shah Qajar. A red background on the flag signifies wartime use, while a green background is for peacetime.

Official Name: Sublime State of Iran (دولت علیّه ایران – Dowlat-e Âliyye-ye Irân)

Leader: Mohammad Shah Qajar (محمد شاه قاجار)

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Union Society of Decembrists

Russia in Europe

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